Home Journal Excerpts Coffee & Tea Chronic coffee consumption has a detrimental effect on aortic stiffness and wave reflections.
Chronic coffee consumption has a detrimental effect on aortic stiffness and wave reflections. PDF Print E-mail
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Wednesday, 01 June 2005 00:00
“Large artery stiffness and wave reflections are important independent prognosticators of cardiovascular disease risk because they determine left ventricular function, coronary blood flow, and mechanical integrity of arteries. Although we and others previously showed that caffeine acutely increases arterial stiffness and wave reflections, the chronic effect of coffee consumption on these indexes has not been defined.”

“228 clinically healthy subjects: 141 men (41 +/- 8y old) and 87 women (41 +/- 9 y old).”
“All reported types of coffee (instant, “Greek” type, filtered, espresso, or cappuccino) were adjusted for 1 cup (150ml) of coffee and a caffeine concentration of 80 mg. According to the distrubution of coffee consumption, we categorized usual coffee consumption as none, low (< 200 mL/d), moderate (200-450 mL/d), or high (> 450 mL/d).”

“The pulse travels at a higher velocity in a stiff aorta and vice versa. Carotid-femoral wave velocity (PWV), a classic and established index of aortic stiffness was calculated from measurements of pulse transit time and the distance traveled between 2 recording sites (pulse wave velocity = distance [meters]/transit time [seconds]) with a validated noninvasive device, which allows online pulse wave recording and automatic calculation of pulse wave velocity.”

“The pressure waveform recorded at any site of the arterial tree is the sum of the forward traveling waveform, which is the waveform generated by pump ejection, and the backward traveling, which is the “echo” of the incident wave reflected at peripheral sites.”

“The present study showed that chronic coffee consumption has a detrimental effect on aortic stiffness and wave reflections in healthy subjects. Importantly, this association remained significant even after previous investigations from our laboratory and those of others, which showed an acute unfavorable effect of caffeine intake on arterial function.”

“A stiff aorta and enhanced wave reflections increase left ventricular load and myocardial oxygen demands and impair ventricular function. Concurrently, they compromise coronary blood flow and predispose to ischemia. Furthermore, by increasing blood pressure, they increase pulsatile stretch of the arteries leading to mechanical fatigue of their elastic components.”

“Accordingly, our study provides an explanatory mechanism for the results of previous investigations that showed an increase in cardiovascular risk with chronic coffee consumption. It is interesting to note that both aortic stiffness and heavy coffee consumption increase risk of acute coronary events, which indicate that impaired arterial function may be one of the mechanisms involved in the effect of heavy coffee consumption on the risk of acute coronary events.”

“Whether the increase in aortic stiffness is a blood pressure-dependent or independent effect is a significant issue. Aortic stiffness may increase passively as a result of an increase in blood pressure or actively because of a modification in the intrinsic elastic properties of the vessel. However, the fact that the association remained significant after adjustment for changes in mean pressure indicates an active effect on the intrinsic properties of the aorta. Nevertheless, the importance and the clinical implications of our findings are valid irrespective of the mechanism involved.”

“Promotion of inflammation by coffee consumption could also account for the increase in aortic stiffness and wave reflections. Indeed, we have shown that chronic coffee consumption is associated with inflammatory markers and that arterial stiffness is associated with acute and chronic inflammation.”

“In conclusion, our study provides evidence that chronic coffee consumption unfavorably affects arterial stiffness and wave reflections and suggests that studies that investigate arterial function should control for coffee intake. Given the widespread consumption of coffee throughout the world, together with the major influence of aortic stiffness and wave reflections on cardiovascular function and cardiovascular disease risk, our findings have important implications for human health.”

Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Demosthenes Panagiotakos, Nikolaos Ioakeimidis, Ioanna Dima, and Chrstodoulos Stefanadis, "Chronic coffee consumption has a detrimental effect on aortic stiffness and wave reflections.", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, June 1, 2005, Vol. 81, Num. 0, pp. 1307-1312


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Last Updated on Wednesday, 24 June 2009 13:06